Forgotten Perfections:


Recalling the Virtues During the Season of Lent

John Kamprath


“The life of man requires to be regulated by the virtues with regard to everything.”

--St. Thomas Aquinas, (Summ. Theo. II-II, 160, 1)

John XXIII described the primary aim of the Second Vatican Council in his Opening Speech of October 11, 1962, when he said, “The greatest concern of the Ecumenical Council is this: that the sacred deposit of Christian doctrine should be guarded and taught more efficaciously. That doctrine embraces the whole of man, composed as he is of body and soul. And, since he is a pilgrim on earth, it commands him to tend always toward heaven.” Three things may be noted in this statement of the originator of the council, (1) the Deposit of Faith must be guarded and promulgated better, (2) the perfection of man concerns both the spiritual and physical aspects of his person, and (3) man is called to save his soul. The successful implementation of the first and third items of this list have been analyzed and debated in this and other Catholic periodicals for almost forty-three years.

Interestingly, not that much attention has been given to the second goal that the pope proposed that fall morning. Scholarship and critical commentary have largely ignored the perfection of man, body and soul. Though educational enthusiasts have made much noise about the formation of the “whole person”, little practical guidance has been offered to assist this aim. Sure, there have been a few critiques of the error known as “personalism”. Nevertheless, a whole new anthropology has been foisted on the Church. What is worse, this has come about by way of the adoption of a new philosophy that embraces categories hitherto foreign in the Catholic vocabulary. In particular, “values” and the “inherent dignity” of natural man have replaced the principles of the good and the perfectibility of the created order. In sum, the result of this post-conciliar “new man” has been the invention of a most eccentric “theology of the body” along with the suppression of the traditional, realistic understanding of man’s actual development in body and soul.

This development is properly accomplished by the work of virtue, which is the dismissed handmaid of the modern era. Indeed, all of the operations of man, both his corporeal actions and his spiritual powers, are regulated and perfected by way of virtue. Catholics who take seriously their fidelity to Tradition will do well to consider that the entire human life can be summed up in the goal of receiving grace and acquiring virtue in all things. From giving glory to God, to perfecting himself and saving his soul; from pursuing happiness and beatitude, to serving the common good of the Church, the social order and his family; all things depend on the life of grace and the practice of virtue.

If man will perfect himself in body and soul, as Pope John challenged, he should recall what it means to be a “man”. It must be remembered that man has a single, complex nature that is at one and the same time both physical and spiritual. In our age we have forgotten this. Furthermore, we have forgotten how to live rightly and perfect our complex nature.

Our anthropological amnesia is manifest in so many ways. For instance, most Catholics have attained little to no intellectual virtue. These are the truths apprehended by the intellect. How many Catholics today know even the simple answers from the Catechism including “God is spirit infinitely perfect” or “Man is a creature composed of body and soul, and made to the image and likeness of God”?

Additionally, the wills of Catholics are largely unfortified and misdirected with regard to the higher moral virtues. We see this in spades with the practice of the virtue of religion, a relative to the cardinal virtue of justice. Ubiquitous is the impious participation of the faithful at Sunday and daily liturgies where their manifest ignorance of the sacrifice of the Mass is demonstrated in the mundane, self-congratulatory motions and songs that dominate modern worship. By and large, most Catholics today do not will to offer along with the priest the unblemished, eternal sacrifice of the Incarnate Word of God for their sins and the sins of the world.

Finally, where the lower bodily passions and emotions used to be kept in check through reverent bodily postures in Church, as well as the regular, year-round mortifications of periodic fasts and the Friday abstinence: now gyrating navels sway to the beat of the guitar and drum; while overfed adolescents may be seen chewing gum in the communion line.

More than ever, Catholics today are in need of developing an understanding of the virtues that regulate the various aspects of man. In order to do this, we must first form a proper understanding of what man is. Since man is a rational animal, we can distinguish groups of virtue that correspond to the parts of his soul and his body.

Very simply, we see three forms of virtue that perfect three fundamental aspects of man:

Man’s intellect, a spiritual faculty[1], is perfected by the intellectual virtues, where truths are attained and reside in the soul as habits.

Man’s free will, another spiritual faculty, is perfected by the higher moral virtues which incline him to pursue the good in all things.

Man’s body, from whence arise the emotions or passions, is regulated by the lower moral virtues, which order these bodily motions according to right reason, and keep man directed toward the higher spiritual goods in which he will find his true happiness.

It is important for all men, and especially clergy, parents and other educators to keep these three aspects of man and their corresponding virtues in mind in all the work they do.

Build the Foundation First

Especially in the very young, but also with adolescents, conquering the passions and emotions (these are essentially interchangeable terms) is the first priority. For like a towering building where the lofty heights rest firmly upon the solid foundation and well-built lower portions, so too, in man can the intellect and free will be perfected only if the emotions are in order. The intellectual and higher moral virtues require the peace that can only be attained through the lower moral virtues.

These building-block moral virtues bring resilience, strength, proportion and order to the motions of the body known as the passions. The body is subject to physical local motions of fidgeting, breathing and walking. It is also subject to the physical motions of passion like anger, fear, joy and sorrow. The passions are good things bestowed upon the corporeal nature of man. Like all things of the material world, though, they are designed to serve the higher, spiritual dimension of creation. Nevertheless, since the Fall of Man and even despite the work of Redemption today, the passions tend to rebel against the spirit. They seek to dominate it. Only through concerted effort might they once again submit themselves to the mind of man.

Turning to an earlier pontiff, Pope Pius XI explained all these things brilliantly in his encyclical letter on Christian education, Divini illius Magistri. Here the Holy Father defines the human person who is the subject of education. Paragraph 58 reads,

In fact it must never be forgotten that the subject of Christian education is man whole and entire, soul united to body in unity of nature, with all his faculties natural and supernatural, such as right reason and revelation show him to be; man, therefore, fallen from his original estate, but redeemed by Christ and restored to the supernatural condition of adopted son of God, though without the preternatural privileges of bodily immortality or perfect control of appetite. There remain therefore, in human nature the effects of original sin, the chief of which are weakness of will and disorderly inclinations.[2]

Thus in man, and especially in the young, there is a real battle to get him off the ground, so to speak, to raise him up beyond the confines of his bodily, emotive and fallen nature. Without the Fall, the material portion of man, his body and its emotions, would serve as the right foundation for his actions, all of them ordered to the perfection of his spirit. After Adam, the body and its passions are still a foundation for man’s actions, but they now serve as a weighty anchor to restrain and limit his spirit both prior to and even during his formation at home, school and church.

In the human body there are two general forms of passion that arise in different situations, which being subject to disorder needs tidying. The first is the tendency to desire the easily obtainable pleasures that arise from what we traditionally call the concupiscible appetite. The other is the inclination to flee from the arduous work and threats that come our way, from what we traditionally call the irascible appetite. Both of these require the training and discipline of the virtues in order to be mastered. These lower moral virtues will restore the passions from the present natural state of disorder to their proper place in the life of man as handmaid to right moral action.

Tempering Concupiscence and Fortifying the Irascible

Do we not all labor to overcome the tendency to moral decadence suggested by the manifold pleasures enticing us in so many ways these days? Think of the education of the young. In the classroom or the home school, do not many children begin the day ready for recess and snack-time as well as eager to color another picture and talk with a neighbor more than they are motivated to focus on fulfilling their morning tasks and routines, or willing to recollect themselves for the next grammar lesson? These distracting interests, which appeal to the concupiscible appetite of our bodies, need to be tamed by the will, through the virtue of temperance and its various forms. Meanwhile, the work involved in successfully completing a demanding academic unit requires the strengthening of our body’s irascible appetite, which ought to pursue and not shirk from the arduous goods in life such as study, through the virtue of fortitude.

Today, the traditional Catholic home may be the only safe haven for families seeking to persevere in the virtues of temperance and fortitude. The traditional family, that has fled to the seclusion of the hills, fields and farms, is the only contender in the battle to master the passions, defeat the usurpation of the flesh and attain the difficult prize which is the crown that does not fade. We need only to recall the graver temptations of the modern age to see how this is the case. When optimistic John opened his council in 1962, the world concurrently unleashed the full forces of the sexual revolution. As we all know, this revolution has become the institutional culture in America and the western world. The sins of the flesh have become the very criteria by which fallen man today evaluates his morbid perfection. Yet it is this sin, and its various manifestations, that are the lowest of the obstacles to the true perfection of man. The misuse of the animal emotion that regards the reproduction of the species is far from any notion of justice, prudence, truth or Charity. But like an unfortunate boxer, this basest of sins takes most Catholics out of the match with a knockout blow in the first round.

At the same time, a fortified resolve to face difficult challenges seems to be equally missing. Today, the emotion of fright and flight dominates man for sure. He suffers from an anemic irascible passion, which rolls over at the first physical difficulty presented to him. For instance, how many “pro-life” Catholics today are willing to brave the elements and face the taunts that await them before the abortuaries around our country? How many of the faithful are diligent in their practice of the Friday abstinence, and observe the ember days? How many of us carry our cross, suffer the white martyrdom and offer all things in reparation for the sins committed against the Immaculate and Sacred Hearts? Which of us, when the systematic persecution begins and we face certain, painful imprisonment and death, will affirm our faith and forsake the comforts of this life and by so doing merit the martyr’s crown?

Let us begin to restore our families with simple things, then. The first step is to recall that virtue is the habit of doing good things well. With repetition and practice, each virtue becomes easier to perform. As a weightlifter initially struggles to press 120 pounds, in time, through consistent repetition, even heavier weights become easy to lift. Now, forming the habit to make good habits is the surest way of beginning the life of virtue. Do not be afraid to begin with little things. For instance, young children, as well as adults, need boundaries and structure to their day. Morning, work-time and evening routines are the surest way for establishing a habitual pattern of always doing the right thing well. The laissez-faire method of parenting that allows the young to merely stumble from one interest to another each day is a recipe for disaster. Instead, a structured day that follows a certain familiar pattern is insurance for the moral life. In this way, the passions of the moment are conquered for the duty of state, minute-by-minute, hour-by-hour, day-by-day. In such wise the Catholic home becomes virtue’s workshop.

A Modest Beginning

After pursuing the initial work of restoring virtue in our homes through acquiring little good habits that structure the day, now let us consider the major virtues that govern the Christian life. These directly perfect man in both his body and his soul. We should recall that there are three Theological Virtues and four natural cardinal virtues that perfect man in this life. These seven great monuments make it possible for man to act well easily. They allow him to enjoy the life of grace, and finally enable him to merit eternal rewards that will get him into heaven.

Imagine a ladder reaching from the earth, past the stars to the heavenly abode. Now imagine the climber who begins at the bottom rung as an infant and succeeds in climbing through old age unto the empyrean heights. Along the way there are many rungs. Ever so often, seven times, in fact, there are platforms upon which to rest. Each platform is either a cardinal or a theological virtue. The rungs below each platform are the subordinate virtues belonging to the major platform virtue above. In ascending order, these platforms are Temperance, Fortitude, Justice, Prudence, Faith, Hope and Charity.

The first four virtues here, the cardinal virtues, belong to the perfection of man as man, and are thus the foundation upon which the supernatural Theological Virtues grow (which in turn perfect man as God’s friend). Since grace builds on nature, we should first consider the natural life of man. This life, and the virtues associated with it, do not contradict the supernatural vocation, but prepare for it and complement it. An analogy to this is the child who first learns to be quiet, sit still and fold his hands at times of prayer in order to dispose himself to petition God and hear Him in his heart.

In examining the cardinal virtues, we will look at their concrete applications to the various particulars of life. In these particulars we will discover a multitude of simpler virtues that are applications and related instances of the cardinal ones. These little virtues are easy to understand. By climbing from one to the next on the ladder of perfection, we will better grasp the great monuments that are the cardinal and Theological virtues.

The first virtues that concern all men are related to one another with respect to Temperance. They are not, strictly speaking, the subject matter of Temperance. After all, do we not usually think of Temperance in regard to the moderation of eating and other pleasures associated with the sense of touch? Humility, studiousness and modesty in word and dress do not treat of tempering those difficult to overcome bodily inclinations toward sense pleasure. Instead, they temper the less difficult emotions to master. That is why they are traditionally grouped together in reference to Temperance.

The virtue modesty is first of all a general heading that we do not want to exclusively identify with the way women clothe themselves. Modesty in dress is but one instance of modesty. Instead, the class of virtues we call modesty concerns a group of habits. Each one addresses a particular human activity that needs its own good habit to perfect it. As we shall see, modesty concerns both habits of mind and of body.

This virtue, modesty, takes it name from the root word, “mode”. As a virtue, “mode” regards the manner of doing things in a way that avoids the extremes of excess and deficiency. Often we hear that “the virtuous way is the mean”, or “all things in moderation.” These easy to remember sayings capture the essence of all moral virtues, and particularly modesty, which is their model.

Arguably the most famous mode of this virtue is the mind’s manner of forming an honest self-assessment as well as his hope and aspiration to greatness. This virtue is humility. Its opposite is the vice pride.

Humility – Modest Hope: Self-Effacement, Deference to Neighbors, Esteem for God

Many wise men have demonstrated that humility is the most important of the natural moral virtues, second only to justice. Great lights like St. Thomas Aquinas are very prudent in making that conclusion, for humility is the gateway to all of the other virtues. Humility is based on the realization that “I am not the center of the universe.” It accepts the greater reality that exists “beyond my own being,” while it acknowledges that “I am a part, not the whole, of this reality.” Finally, it sees that in the structure of the world around me, “I am not placed at the top.” These are the sorts of truths upon which the virtue of humility rests. From such a vantage, humility concerns the tempering of man’s spirit in its natural inclination to attain great things.

True humility begins with an honest assessment of oneself both according to nature and grace. Catholics traditionally acknowledge that sin is the only thing that man produces all by himself. All other things in nature and grace are good because they are of God. The humble man will boast in his blessings from God. He will also confess his poverty of self. Let us, of course, not be confused by Luther’s error, that man is sin. Luther held the erroneous notion contrary to Catholic dogma, that Adam’s sin destroyed man’s nature. Simply, God gave Adam no such power.

While discussing humility, St. Thomas Aquinas makes this point when commenting on Philippians ii, 3, “In humility, let each esteem others better than themselves.” The Common Doctor says, “We may consider two things in man, namely that which is God’s and that which is man’s. Whatever pertains to defect is man’s: but whatever pertains to man’s welfare and perfection is God’s.” He goes on to show that humility “properly regards the reverence whereby man is subject to God.” Furthermore, “the humble man, in so far as he is the author of his own defect and sin, will place himself lower than all other men, in so far as they possess Godliness within themselves.” (II-II, 161, 3) At the same time, humility does not entertain falsehoods. Though the humble man takes all the blame, and gives God all the credit, even for his own merits; he does not lie about the degree of his ills or blessings.

Thus it would be false humility for a St. Francis or Padre Pio to esteem their good as worse than that of a Judas or Cain; as the inverse is wrong for the latter to hold that their squandered graces were superior to those of the saints. Yet, even the greatest saint was viler than the worst of the damned in his offenses as compared to the least grace possessed or good deed performed by any of the sons of perdition while they otherwise vainly walked this earth.

Speaking very technically, humility is defined as the regulation of the movement of the emotion hope, which is, as St. Thomas teaches, “the movement of a spirit aiming at great things.” (II-II, 161, 4) The humble man hopes in greatness, but within the bounds of reason and grace, never too little nor too much. A humble man may attain great things, if he is given the talent and grace. He is even free to recognize the great achievement, but he must attribute it to God, not himself. He is not free to the self-esteem by which he identifies himself with his greatness.

Showing us the way to perfect humility, St. Benedict identified 12 degrees of this virtue in his famous Rule. Every Catholic ought to own that Rule and meditate on it often. I merely reproduce his principles of humility here; they are easy to understand and simple to apply:

1) Fear God, and always be mindful of everything God has commanded.

2) Do not delight in fulfilling one’s own desires.

3) Subject oneself to a superior.

4) Embrace patience by obeying under difficult and contrary circumstances.

5) Confess one’s sins.

6) Think oneself worthless and unprofitable for all purposes.

7) Believe and acknowledge oneself viler than all.

8) Do nothing but to what one is exhorted by the common rule of the monastery.

9) Maintain silence until one is asked.

10) Do not be easily moved and disposed to laughter.

11) Speak few and sensible words, and not in a loud voice.

12) Be humble not only in heart, but also to show it in one’s very person, one’s eyes fixed on the ground.

Three questions come to mind in reviewing these ancient precepts: (1) Which of these have become obsolete for man in the world in this twenty-first century? (2) Which of these have become obsolete for Catholics in the Church of the third millennium? (3) Which of these are unnecessary for my state in life, personal sanctity, piety, good works, salvation and glory given to God? The answer to all of these questions is “None.”

Another even more authoritative compilation of teachings on humility is the Beatitudes preached by Our Lord in the Sermon on the Mount. The Fathers of the Church in their explanation of these precepts for the New Law almost unanimously point to the overriding spirit of humility present in these monuments to perfection and salvation of the New Covenant.

Pride: Self-Esteem and Standing in the Place of God

Contrarily, pride is the indulgence of hope beyond the measure of reason as sketched above. St. Gregory the Great defined the four forms that pride can take in the acts of an arrogant sinner. They are: (1) when one thinks that his good is from himself; (2) when he believes his good to be from above, but possessed on account of his own merits; (3) when he boasts of having what he has not; or (4) when he despises others and wishes to appear to be the only possessor of what he has. In every instance here, pride is most deadly because man claims as his own what is not his; he attempts to put himself on God’s throne.

Furthermore, pride is the root of every sin committed that is otherwise not due to mere ignorance or weakness. Thus, anytime we knowingly and willingly transgress a commandment under our own full power, we always sin against that precept of the law and we sin against humility. For instance, if I were to steal a youngster’s sandwich, I would be depriving him of his good and break the seventh commandment. I would sin against the child. But by the very act of breaking a precept of the law laid down by God Himself, I am also offending God. In this case, I am also sinning by pride in that I prefer my own judgment to that of God’s. I put myself in his place and disregard his authority.

Adam committed the first sin against humility when he listened to his wife who had spoken with the serpent, and ate from the forbidden tree of the knowledge of good and evil. Adam’s objective was clear; he attempted to become a god. Adam hoped to attain something greater than he could by right and by nature, and he despised the sole precept laid upon him in paradise. Adam esteemed himself greater than he should have. As a result, pride was the original sin. It is also the root of the life of iniquity for all men who commit actual sins.

Prior to Adam’s original human violation of the virtue of humility was the sin of pride practiced by the devil and his cohorts in the beginning. Instead of delving into an analysis of demonology, which is never a prudent endeavor for theologians, let alone mere mortals such as you and I, let us instead consider their chief adversary, St. Michael the Archangel. As far as we know through the public Revelation entrusted to the Church, St. Michael is now the greatest of the heavenly host. This is most revealing for in the hierarchy of the nine choirs of angels, the archangels are only second from the bottom. Satan was the chief of the seraphim –the highest order. But Michael, whose very name means, “Who is like God?” answers the riddle of his moniker, “No one, neither Lucifer nor I,” by driving that unworthy wight from the pinnacle of glory unto the utter depths of hell. Yes, Satan is proud, but St. Michael is humble. For his ongoing heroic act of the original virtue, humility, Michael’s reward is the title and the authority that accompanies it, “Prince of the Heavenly Host.” The humble has been exalted; he is victorious.

Our Lord, when He came to save the world, chose to undo in His first Advent the very breaches of humility practiced by Satan and Adam that violated the perfect order God gave to heaven and earth. He did this by taking upon Himself the form of the lowest rational creature, a poor, simple and helpless babe. Did He not also hide Himself in utter obscurity for 30 years with His mother and father in Nazareth? Did He not, too, preach the way of salvation through the lowly course of the beatitudes that begins with the Spirit of Poverty, and then progresses on to the other relatives of humility? Did He not finally humble Himself supremely as prophesized by Isaias as the Lamb led to slaughter who opened not His mouth?

We need not ponder long to understand the imperative for forming a healthy humility in our lives. If we hope to have any success as faithful children of God, we must begin with a solid foundation in the humility of the saints who teach us in their contemporary situations the same Gospel that our Lord gave to us 2000 years ago. We must also draw attention to the incidents that try our humility on a daily basis and show how they are occasions for virtue, character building and merit. Above all, we must pray to have instilled within us a hearty esteem for God, His Church and the saints. And from that vantage we must learn to test every spirit. What accords with our welfare and the glory of God is good. What is not, is chaff. A Catholic does not listen to the moderns who preach self- esteem. Instead he hearkens to the voice of the Lord who speaks with authority and truth. It is in the Spirit of the All-good and the Almighty that he learns to pray, “Jesus, I trust in you!” Through these prayers, and similar practices, we Catholics can attain a modest self-assessment that places hope where it belongs, namely, in God.

Studiousness: The Modest Pursuit for Knowledge

Now that we have treated of humility, which is the moderation of the desires both for a good self-evaluation as well as the hope to attain great things, we turn next to the moderation of the ambition to pursue knowledge and the intellectual life. When modesty virtuously regulates this natural human desire for knowledge, we have the special virtue, studiousness.

The word “study” refers to the keen application of the mind to something. As a virtue, studiousness primarily concerns the moderation of the desire for knowledge, which is effected by the work of study. A secondary sense of this virtue considers the work involved in keenly applying the mind to difficult subject matter. That special sense of studiousness is really taken up as an application of the virtue perseverance when considering the onerous demands upon the scholar.

For our consideration, studiousness will regard that earlier sense, the moderation of the desire to know. Now knowledge, in itself, is the intellectual virtue of habitually knowing something. In so far as something is true, it is good to know, for the purpose of the intellect is to have the mind in agreement with reality. Since the moral life is distinct from the intellectual life, the moral life does not apply the concept of the mean to the possession of these intellectual virtues called knowledge. After all, truth is not capable of being regulated by categories like too little or too much. As for instance, either one knows that 1+1=2, or one does not know that. One cannot know such a truth according to the modes too little or too much, though one must avoid the temptation to take pride in or misuse for evil purposes the knowledge attained. The more volatile equation, E=MC2 comes to mind.

On the other hand, the desire or purpose for attaining true knowledge is something that is regulated by the moral virtues. It is subject to the moderation of mean, lest the natural desire for knowledge be excessive. After discerning that one’s desire for study is free from prideful or malicious intent, the virtue of studiousness considers four things in regard to the moderation of the desire for knowledge. Where the pursuit of study is inordinately undertaken, there is present not virtue, but the vice of curiosity.

First, one must recollect himself prior to commencing study to discern that his pursuit corresponds with the obligations incumbent upon him. Any distraction from the studies proper to one’s duty of state would constitute a curious inquiry into less profitable matters. To help us understand this point, we might recall that study refers to the attempt to find out the truth of anything, not just the subjects found in an academic curriculum. Reading the newspaper, minding the affairs of others, heeding gossip, following the latest episode in a popular television show, keeping up with the fashions that are all the rage, knowing the latest bands, or clicking to the next curious novelty on the Internet are the very things that often compete for studious attention by Catholics in America today. Assuming the moral content of these things is licit (and almost universally they are not, as detraction, slander, avarice, anger, gluttony, immodesty and impurity are the very objects of inquiry here), there must be good reasons for paying attention to them. These reasons include helping direct man to his last end and giving glory of God. Also, such secondary matters of importance may only be pursued after all necessary studies for our duty of state are complete.

What are the matters for study required of our duty of state? They are the various obligations entrusted to us according to the responsibilities of our age and office. Every man has the duty to study the things of God as revealed by Him, expounded by reason and entrusted to the Church. All are responsible for learning and retaining the catechism. All are responsible for daily spiritual reading. St. Alphonsus de Ligouri, the moral doctor of the Church, counseled that you will not save your soul if you do not faithfully attended to 15 minutes of spiritual reading each day. All must study the moral law and the virtues. All must learn the civic code of their society by which they are required to live. All must learn the customs and rules of their home. All must learn the curriculum entrusted to them by their parents, school and Church. All must learn the domestic arts, or a trade, profession or science by which to make a living. All must recollect the mind and spirit by tending to noble arts that elevate the intellect and succor the spirit. All must tend to any other matter necessary for the sustenance of their temporal and eternal wellbeing.

Secondly, studiousness avoids consultation from unlawful sources of knowledge. Curious is the sinful man who consults demons, oracles, witches, fortune-tellers, horoscopes, tarot cards, and all other superstitious media from the occult. Though no longer a lawfully binding list, the Index of Forbidden Books is the resource for the perfidious. Secular and Masonic sources for history and political theory are to be avoided, as well. They are the deceptive tales and doctrines of the enemies of goodness, truth and salvation that entice young and old away from their Christian destiny.

Thirdly, the good student may pursue a comprehensive study of the truth about creatures if and only if it is done with reference to the goal of all knowledge, which is God. Animal husbandry and veterinary medicine are disciplines principally ordered to the good of man, and by extension the glory of God. Good breeds and healthy stock are necessary things for the welfare of man. On the other hand, a curious probing into the biological origin of species, and specious theories of the rights of animals alongside men, are the concerns of the godless multitude who have squandered their intellectual inheritance in our generation. SPCA and PETA are not the abbreviations following the names of the spiritual children of St. Francis.

Lastly, the studious do not study above the capacity of their own intelligence. Error and confusion are the only results when this principle is violated. For instance, men lack the ability to learn new things about the inner nature of God, the Blessed Trinity, apart from what has already been revealed by Him and infallibly clarified by Holy Mother Church. Any speculation leading to novel insights concerning things that are beyond the natural light of reason that have not been specially and publicly revealed are predetermined from the outset to be wrong.

Another instance is the unjust promotion of every living body automatically on to higher education. The effects of Original Sin, which all men suffer in different degrees, include the darkening of the intellect and the weakening of the will. Though no man save Adam is responsible for this condition that is common to all, those who suffer a greater diminution of the intellectual light are unfit for rigorous scholastic studies. I will never forget the poor fellow who was a classmate of mine in a graduate theology program somewhere in the Midwest, who after two weeks of rather brilliant yet comprehensible lectures on a recurring topic in philosophy, blurted out in class, “Duuuh, Dr. Paaaaaul, I jees don’t get this natural law stuff!” (gesticulation and pronunciation in the original). This poor soul probably went on to graduate (if he made it through the program) with upwards of $25,000 to $40,000 in student debt and has no practical way of earning a living that would suitably remunerate him to be able to pay down that balance and provide modestly for a family. A social security number and a pulse should not be the only requirements for admission to higher studies. More to the point, this fellow ended his academic career frustrated and confused. This is an offense against studiousness.

Curiosity, then, is the vice that opposes studiousness. It does so principally by violating one of these four modes of good study and its proper intention. Briefly, we could mention that curiosity also considers the “temptation of the eye”, which is the pursuit of knowledge gained from sights for lustful purposes. Men, who are more easily prone to lustful abandon must learn to guard their eyes. Women, who are more prone to attract, must learn to veil their beauty in ways that will be discussed in the next section.

Modesty in Outward Movement and Dress

We come to the last virtues that comprise the various external forms of modesty. These are modest human movements, speech and dress.

Modest bodily movements have the character of virtue when they possess honesty and beauty. Honesty refers to a thing being worthy of honor. Honor is due to the quality of excellence present in the thing we revere. Beauty is similar. It is the comeliness that results from the concurrence of clarity and due proportion. Now beauty in external things is all the more noble and honorable when it denotes a corresponding interior ordering and proportion that is the result of the excellence of virtue in a soul.

St. Thomas teaches that the style of outward movements pertains to the beauty of honesty. (II-II 168. 1 ff.) This is present when there is a fittingness of movement with regard to the person who moves. These we call “taste”, that is, those things which are becoming to the person himself. These things reveal the interior dispositions and the ordering of the passions of the soul. St. Ambrose wrote, “from these things (the outward movements), the man that lies hidden in our hearts is esteemed to be either frivolous, or boastful, or impure, or on the other hand sedate, steady, pure and free from blemish.” Truthfulness is the related virtue that sees to it our outward movements of words and deeds are signs of our inward disposition.

There is also the fittingness of movements as regards externals such as other persons, the business at hand, or place. Here the rule of “methodicalness”, directs outward movements. Friendliness and affability are the related virtues that perfect outward movements that are directed toward others. A sense of decorum directs our bearing in different physical places and social environments.

Play and recreation are another aspect of movements and speech that require the regulation of the virtue modesty. Just as the body fatigues and needs rest and refreshment, so, too, the soul fatigues under strenuous mental labor and needs rest and refreshment. This rest comes about through pleasure. Thus St. Thomas teaches “the remedy for weariness of soul must needs consist in the application of some pleasure, by slackening the tension of the reason’s study.” (II-II 168. 2) Pleasure comes from play and humor. These things are distinguished from all other pursuits in that they employ words and deeds with no further objective than the soul’s immediate delight.

In this fun, three things need special moderation. The first is that there are no indecent or injurious words or deed. Nothing should be discourteous, insolent, scandalous or obscene. The second caution guards against the excessive relinquishing of the mind over to the fun. The balance of the mind is carefully attained through the hard work of study and practice of the virtues. Game play should not upset that balance. Thus children especially should never be allowed absolute freedom in their games. The restraint of good behavior should still dominate so that their fun reflects their upright minds. Thirdly, observance of persons, time and place is important. Not every possible good game is appropriate at any time, place or presence of persons. The extremes of excessive play and lack of mirth are to be avoided in the modest person, lest buffoonery or severity result.

Grace and Honesty in Outward Apparel

The outward things that we use, such as clothing and adornments, are not themselves either virtuous or vicious. How they are used and esteemed are. Within a sane culture, the ethics of the virtue of modesty in dress follows the norms laid down by the customs of the society in which one finds oneself. There, violations of the norm offend public modesty. However, Americans today live in a revolutionary culture that favors a perpetual challenge to the prevailing norms of style, modesty, decency and goodness. To the extent that Catholics in their families, schools and churches tolerate our era’s successive decadence in morals and modesty, they are part of the revolution. As other ages were not so dominated by the spirit of the Eumenides and Bacchus to the extent that ours is, the traditional role of custom and public habit is no longer a safe guidepost either for fit or coverage of garments. Let us turn to some other particulars that govern modest adornment and apparel.

To begin with, we must neither be too attached nor too pleased with the raiment of the body. This needs to be observed in three ways. First, we must not seek glory from too excessive an attention to dress. This form of the virtue of modesty in dress is really a relative of humility. Second, we must not seek excessive pleasure in the comforts afforded by clothing. Contentment is the related virtue here that makes us satisfied with what is suitable, and enables us to determine what is becoming in this manner of life. Lastly we must not be too picky in selecting the clothes that we must wear. Simplicity is the rule, for it makes us content with what we have.

There are also ways by which we fail to govern our dress with modesty by way of deficiency. One, called “effeminacy”, is the neglect of giving proper regard to the use of outward apparel. This vice occasions an offensive shabbiness in appearance. Another is a shrugging off of all convention and decorum by dressing with abject contempt for cleanliness, orderliness or decency. The last two are seen everywhere today in America where misplaced trousers fall below the hips, defectively short blouses are hemmed above the navel, and pre-faded, pre-worn garments are sold at exorbitant prices at the boutiques.

One last area in the consideration of modest dress is its relation to the virtue of purity. Modest dress elevates the physical personae of the man or woman who wears such clothing, so that his or her body reflects the virtues striven after and attained by the soul. Furthermore, it educes the virtues of moderate thoughts and tempered desires in those who behold them. On the other hand, when such dress is uncharitably or negligently missing, the scandals of temptation and seduction often result.

St. Thomas Aquinas, who is known as the “Angelic Doctor” for his heroic purity, had much to say on this and the related topics concerning women’s dress. I simply reproduce for you his wisdom. He begins: “As regards the outward apparel of women, we must bear in mind the general statements made above concerning outward apparel,” I have summarized those in the preceding paragraphs. St. Thomas continues,

and also something special, namely that a women’s apparel may incite men to lust, according to Proverbs vii. 10, Behold a women meeteth him in harlot’s attire, prepared to deceive souls.

Nevertheless a women may use means to please her husband, lest through despising her he fall into adultery. Hence it is written (1 Cor. vii. 34) that the woman that is married thinketh on the things of the world, how she may please her husband. Wherefore if a married woman adorn herself in order to please her husband she can do this without sin.

But those women who have no husband nor wish to have one, or who are in a state of life inconsistent with marriage, cannot without sin desire to give lustful pleasure to those men who see them, because this is to incite them to sin. And if indeed they adorn themselves with this intention of provoking others to lust, they sin mortally; whereas if they do so from frivolity, or from vanity for the sake of ostentation, it is not always mortal, but sometimes venial. And the same applies to men in this respect. Hence Augustine says (Epistle ccxlv. Ad Possid.): I do not wish you to be hasty in forbidding the wearing of gold or costly attire except in the case of those who being neither married nor wishful to marry, should think how they may please God: whereas the others think on the things of the world, either husbands how they may please their wives, or wives how they may please their husbands, except that it is unbecoming for women though married to uncover their hair, since the Apostle commands them to cover the head. Yet in this case some might be excused from sin, when they do this not through vanity but on account of some contrary custom: although such a custom is not to be commended.”

Finally, St. Thomas concludes with a few words about the practice of women adorning themselves in men’s clothing: “Outward apparel should be consistent with the estate of the person, according to the general custom. Hence it is in itself sinful for a woman to wear man’s clothes, or vice versa; especially since this may be a cause of sensuous pleasure; and it is expressly forbidden in the Law (Deut. xxii) because the Gentiles used to practice this change of attire for the purpose of idolatrous superstition. Nevertheless this may be done sometimes without sin on account of some necessity, either in order to hide oneself from enemies, or through lack of other clothes, or for some similar motive.” (II-II 169. 2)

The argument for the practice of American women (and most of the female sex of the western world) wearing feminized versions of men’s attire as arising from the moral revolution in which we suffer today is beyond the scope of this study, though all indications would be that this practice is revolutionary and against good morals. Nevertheless the principles outlined by the Angelic Doctor are beyond reproof.

Regarding resources for both the principles of modesty in dress as well as sources for obtaining suitable dress for the young, please consult the recently published masterpiece by the articulate and gracious Catholic woman, Colleen Hammond, entitled Dressing with Dignity. Every home should own at least one dog-eared copy of this definite book on the subject of modesty in women’s dress. It is available at both and


We have considered these various species of Modesty first, namely humility, studiousness and external actions and coverings, because as we explained earlier, they are related one to the other under Temperance as those desires which are easier to moderate than the subject matter of the cardinal virtue, which is the desire of the flesh. It must be noted that these virtues: humility, studiousness and the various outward forms of modesty, have to be mastered early and remain with the young (or be recaptured by the old) so that they may have the virtuous foundation for attaining temperance in the things more difficult to handle. It stands to reason that when the easier and more elementary things are missed, the latter, mature and more onerous duties will suffer a tragic fate.

Returning to the analogy of the virtue ladder, we began with those virtues that make for an easier initial ascent. In the future we shall examine one more set of virtues related to temperance that are essential for all men, namely clemency and meekness, and then move on to the specific forms of temperance and their necessary constituent parts. That will bring us firmly and safely to the first landing on the virtue ladder.


[1] Please note that the term “spiritual” does not mean supernatural as is often confused. “Spiritual” refers to the immaterial nature of the higher creatures, namely: angels and men.

[2] Note how this is so unlike our modern churchmen’s presentation of man. Here the mystery of man is still reasonably comprehensible. How different this is from the moderns who present him as essentially mystifying, and therefore the object of veneration and even solipsism.